- Fluoride induced myelin damage in mouse hippocampus.
- Fluoride shortened the synaptic cleft and thickened the postsynaptic density.
- Fluoride altered the expressions of CREB, BDNF, and NCAM in hippocampus.
To investigate the fluoride-induced neurotoxicity on mice hippocampus, healthy adult mice were exposed to 25, 50, and 100 mg NaF/L for 60 days. The results showed that medium and high fluoride administration induced ultrastructural alterations in the structure of neuron synapse, including indistinct and short synaptic cleft, and thickened postsynaptic density (PSD). The significant reduced mRNA expressions of proteolipid protein (PLP) in medium and high fluoride groups suggested that myelin damage occurred in hippocampus. The myelin damage in turn was determined by the increased myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) level, which is naturally released by injured myelin, in high fluoride group, compared to the medium fluoride group. In addition, high fluoride exposure also reduced the mRNA and protein levels of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). These findings suggested that the alteration in synaptic structure and myelin damage may partly be due to adverse effects of fluoride on the neurotrophy and neuron adhesion in mice hippocampus.