The Canadian psychiatrist and specialist on trauma and dissociation, Dr. Colin Ross, presented a paper at the 9th Annual Western Clinical Conference on Trauma and Dissociation in Orange County, California, where he showed that he encountered evidence from released CIA-FOIA documents that the agency did research on the creation of Manchurian candidates since World War […]
The Central Intelligence Agency conducted a 14‐year program to find ways to “control human behavior” through the use of chemical, biological and radiological material, according to agency documents made public today by John Marks, a freelance journalist.
Mr. Marks, an associate of the Center for National Security Studies, asserted at a news conference that Adm. Stansfield Turner, Director of Central Intelligence, in a letter to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence last week, “seriously distorted” what the C.I.A. research programs involved.
Mr. Marks said that, based on documents about the program he had received under the Freedom of Information Act, he had concluded that Admiral Turner “seems to be practicing what used to be called ‘a modified limited hangout’” when he called the agency’s activity “a program of experimentation with drugs.”
“To be sure, drugs were part of it,” he said, “but so were such other techniques as electric shock, radiation, ultrasonics, psychosurgery, psychology and incapacitating agents, all of which were referred to in documents I have received.”
The documents made public today and the disclosure by the C.I.A. last week that it had found another cache of previously undiscovered records suggested broader experimentation on unwitting humans by the intelligence agency or its paid researchers than had been publicly known before. Mr. Marks said he had obtained or read about 1,000 C.I.A. documents, many of which were never turned over to the Senate intelligence committee for its 1975 investigation of agency activities.
C.I.A. spokesmen declined comment on Mr. Marks’s charges. However, Admiral Turner told newsmen after leaving a meeting with senators that the agency was moving swiftly to review the documents it had found.
Mr. Marks distributed 20 documents that described the following incidents, among others:
In 1956, the C.I.A. contracted with a private physician to test “bulbocapnine,” a drug that can cause stupor or induce a catatonic state, on monkeys and “convicts incarcerated at” an unnamed state penitentiary. The agency wanted to known if the drug caused the “loss of speech in man,” “loss of sensitivity to pain—loss of memory, loss of will power.”
A letter from an unnamed C.I.A. official in 1949 discussed ways of killing people without leaving a trace. “I believe that there are two chemical substances which would le most useful in that they would leave no characteristic pathological findings, and the quantities needed could be easily transported to places where they were to be used,” the letter said. The letter also suggested exposure of an individual to X‐rays or to an environment in which he would freeze to death. If these methods were too difficult, two methods needing no special equipment, the letter said, would be to “smother the victim with a pillow or to strangle him with a wide piece of cloth, such as a bath towel.”
Aware of Questionable Nature
In 1952, two Russian agents who were “suspected of being doubled” were interrogated using “narcohypnotic” methods. Under medical cover, the documents said the two men were given sodium pentothal and a stimulant. One interrogation produced a “remarkable” regression, the papers said, during which “the subject actually relived certain past activities of his life, some dating back 15 years while, in addition, the subject totally accepted Mr. [name deleted] as an old and trusted and beloved personal friend whom the subject had known in years past in Georgia, U.S.S.R.”
A summary of a 1953 meeting reported a suggestion that the C.I.A. work with scientists of an unidentified foreign government, since “that country allowed experiments with anthrax,” a disease contracted from infected cattle and sheep, and the United States did not.
The documents given to Mr. Marks were heavily edited, apparently for security reasons, but they showed that even while the C.I.A. was operating this program was conscious of its questionable nature.
One 1950 memorandum, on finding psychiatrists to conduct experiments, noted that one applicant’s “ethics might be such that he might not care to cooperate in certain more revolutionary phases of our project.” But it said another candidate’s “ethics are such that he would be completely cooperative in any phase of our program, regardless of how revolutionary it maybe.”
A 1963 inspector general’s report that apparently resulted in a program being discontinued noted “the concepts involved in manipulating human behavior are found by many people both within and outside the agency to be distasteful and unethical.”
According to Mr. Marks’s documents and an earlier Senate investigation, the C.I.A. conducted secret medical experiments from 1949 through 1963 under the code names Bluebird, Artichoke, MK Ultra and MK Delta. The C.I.A. inspector general’s report in 1963 described the program as the “research and development of chemical, biological and radiological materials capable of employment in clandestine operations to control human behavior.”
5,000 New Documents
Last week, Admiral Turner announced that the agency had discovered some 5,000 documents pertaining to the program that were not available to the Senate intelligence committee in 1975. They are financial records of the various experiments and include the names of doctors and medical institutions that performed the tests.
Today, Admiral Turner gave the members a closed‐door briefing on the new material. He will appear before a joint public hearing of the intelligence committee and Senator Edward M. Kennedy’s health subcommittee on July 29 to more fully describe the new findings. The intelligence committee staff will begin studying the documents later this week.
Under the Freedom of Information Act, private citizens can obtain heretofore secret government documents, provided they do not endanger current national security matters or disclose matters that could invade the privacy of other individuals.
Mr. Marks charged that it had taken him nearly two years of legal pressure to dislodge the material he had received. He said he had been promised the additional 5,000 documents before the end of the month.
Amidst the subtle cerebral circumvention of the gullible populace, through a multitude of manipulated mediums, lies one of the most diabolical atrocities perpetrated upon a segment of the human race; a form of systematic mind control which has permeated every aspect of society for almost fifty years. To objectively ascertain the following, one may need […]
Researchers turned their attentions to American prisoners of war held in Korea admitting on television to using biochemical weapons (including Anthrax) against Korea. They had succeeded earlier in the interrogation of Russian agents using ARTICHOKE methods. Meanwhile, a CIA propagandist embedded as a journalist at the Miami Herald, Edward Hunter, began circulating rumors of advanced Soviet and Chinese “brainwashing” methods, culminating with the publication of Brain-washing in Red China: the calculated destruction of men’s minds. Hunter was a former OSS agent who had worked alongside Richard Helms and Howard Hunt in Asia during World War 2.
The Agency took note that prisoners of war who had escaped captivity v the northeastern via the Chinese region of Manchuria had exhibited signs of missing time. In 1959, Richard Condon wrote his bestselling ‘The Manchurian Candidate’, inspiring two movies, and an FBI investigation.
“Following this BLACKEDOUT commented on the very interesting angle that interrogations of the individuals who had come out of North Korea across the Soviet Union to freedom recently had apparently had a “blank” period or period of disorientation while passing through a special zone in Manchuria. BLACKEDOUT pointed out that this had occurred in all individuals in the party after they had had their first full meal and their first coffee on the way to freedom. BLACKEDOUT pointed out that BLACKEDOUT was attempting to secure further confirmatory facts in this matter since drugging was indicated.”
― MORI ID: 144996
July 15th, 1953
The CIA eventually determined that returning prisoners of war had not been subjected to the advanced brainwashing methods described by Hunter. Nevertheless, the rumors helped with funding and in disproved allegations of using biochemical weapons.
Early efforts in using drugs, sleep induction, and hypnosis to create a Manchurian candidate appears to be successful.
In simulated exercises conducted in 1951, two hypnotized subjects assembled, planted, and detonated bombs in response to specific codewords. Both subjects were unable to recall anything. They had no memories whatsoever of their actions. (H = Hypnosis; SI= Sleep Induction)
“ BLACKEDOUT was instructed that upon awakening, she would proceed to BLACKEDOUT room where she would wait at the desk for a telephone call. Upon receiving the call, a person known as “Jim” would engage her in normal conversation. During the course of the conversation, this individual would mention a code word to BLACKEDOUT . When she heard this code word, she would pass into a SI trance state, but would not close her eyes and remain perfectly normal and continue the telephone conversation. She was told that upon conclusion of the telephone conversation, she would carry out instructions:
…was shown an electric timing device. She was informed that this device was an incendiary bomb and was then instructed how to attach and set the device. After BLACKEDOUT learned how to set and attach the device, she was told to return to asleep state and further instructed that upon concluding the aforementioned conversation, she would take the timing device which was in a briefcase, and proceed to the ladies room. In the ladies room, she would be met by a girl whom she had never seen who would identify herself by the code word “New York.” After identifying herself, BLACKEDOUT then to show this individual how to attach and set the timing device and further instructions would be given that the timing device was to be carried in the briefcase to BLACKEDOUT room, placed in the nearest empty electric-light plug and concealed in the bottom, left-hand drawer of BLACKEDOUT desk, with the device set for 82 seconds and turned on.”
― SI and H experimentation (25 September 1951)
(MORI ID: 190527)
In 1952 ARTICHOKE researchers used delivered codes over a telephone or very subtle signals to induce a deep hypnotic trance. Two 20-year female test subjects in particular were deemed ideal to act as “unwilling couriers”.
“In all of these cases, these subjects have clearly demonstrated that they can pass from a fully awake state to a deep H controlled state via the telephone, via some very subtle signal that cannot be detected by other persons in the room and without the other individual being able to note the change. It has been clearly shown that physically individuals can be induced into H by telephone, by receiving written matter, or by the use of code, signal, or words and that control of those hypnotized can be passed from one individual to another without great difficulty. It has also been shown by experimentation with these girls that they can act as unwilling couriers for information purposes and that they can be conditioned to a point where they believe a change in identity on their part even on the polygraph.”
― Outline of Special H Cases
(MORI ID: 190684)
A January 1954 ARTICHOKE dispatch asked:
“Can an individual of a BLACKEDOUT descent be made to perform an act of attempted assassination involuntarily under the influence of ARTICHOKE?”
Later, it specifies:
“As a “trigger mechanism” for an even bigger project, it was proposed that, an individual of a BLACKEDOUT descent, approximately 35 years old, well educated, proficient in English, and well established socially and politically in the BLACKEDOUT government be induced under ARTICHOKE to perform an act, involuntarily, of attempted assassination against a prominent BLACKEDOUT politician or if necessary, against an American official.”
― General Security specific ARTICHOKE report
Jan 22, 1954 (MORI ID 140399)
The CIA and later the Office of Scientific Intelligence begin Project Bluebird (renamed Project Artichoke in 1951) in order to find ways to “extract” information from CIA agents, control individuals “through special interrogation techniques,” “enhance memory” and use “unconventional techniques, including hypnosis and drugs” for offensive measures and the ‘covert use of biological and chemical […]