National Security Action Memorandum 263: JFK’s Articulates His Plan to End the Vietnam War

In National Security Action Memorandum 263, dated October 11, 1963, Kennedy articulated his decision to withdraw all US military forces from Vietnam by the end of 1965 — with the withdrawal to be completed after the 1964 election. This was the formal policy of the United States government on the day he died. Evidence of […]

Operation Mongoose: A CIA Proposal, Approved by the Pentagon, to Kill Innocent Americans or Cuban Refugees and Blame it on Castro to Provoke an Invasion

Failure at the Bay of Pigs did not deter the Kennedy administration from seeking ways to topple Castro. In November 1961 Operation Mongoose was created to coordinate these efforts. This was not a strictly CIA operation – General Edward Lansdale was tasked with coordinating activities between the CIA, Defense Department, and State Department. The Special […]