WORLD DOCTORS ALLIANCE Announce Lawsuit Against COVID-19 Global Lockdown

The World Doctors Alliance is an independent non-profit alliance of doctors, nurses, healthcare professionals and staff around the world who have united in the wake of the Covid-19 response chapter to share experiences with a view to ending all lockdowns and related damaging measures and to re-establish universal health determinance of psychological and physical wellbeing for all humanity.

Speakers in order of appearance are: HEIKO SCHÖNING, M.D. Doctor and co-founder of doctors for enlightenment, Member of the WDA & ACU2020 from Germany Aus Deutschland, Gründungsmitglied der ÄRZTE-FÜR-AUFKLÄRUNG; WDA & ACU2020 DR. MOHAMMAD ADIL MB BS. FRCSEd Consultant General Surgeon & Chairman of the WDA from the UK DR. ELKE DE KLERK General Practitioner & Founder of Doctors for Truth from the Netherlands DR. MIKAEL NORDFORS Medical Doctor, Author & Political Reformist from Sweden DR. ZAC COX Holistic Dentist & General Secretary for the WDA from the UK BORIS DRAGIN Physician, Naturopath & Representative of People’s Court from Sweden MARTIN BYRN Human Rights Advocate from Ireland MONICA HELLEBERG Chairman of People’s Court and Core Member of New Earth from Sweden MADS PALSVIG Founder of JFK21 (Jorden Frihed Kundskab 2021) & Former Investment Banker from Denmark DAVID KURTEN Member of London Assembly & Standing for Mayor of London 2021 from the UK DR. MONIQUE JANSSEN Psychologist & Founder of Women for Freedom from Holland WENDY EKELS Founder of Humanity Unite from the Netherlands DR. AGATHE DORADO Holistic Doctor of 20 years & 5G Activist from Denmark FIONA HINE Founder of https://Covileaks.co.uk and Event Organiser of Resist and Act from the UK DR. MARGARETA GRIESZ-BRISSON Consultant Neurologist from Germany DR. HEINRICH FIECHTNER Oncologist, Haematologist, Palliative Care Physician and Politician from Germany PROF. DOLORES CAHILL Professor in Molecular Biology and Immunology & President of the WDA from Ireland Necessary links: World Doctors Alliance at https://worlddoctorsalliance.com Heiko Schoening at https://acu2020.org Martin Byrne at https://lawlibrary.ie Dolores Cahill at https://irishfreedom.ie Mads Palsvig at https://JFK21.dk Filmed in 4K by Oracle Films https://oraclefilms.com

We were told initially that the premise for lockdown was to ‘flatten the curve’ and therefore protect the NHS from being overwhelmed.

It is clear that at no point was the National Health Service (NHS) in any danger of being overwhelmed, and since May 2020 covid wards have been largely empty; and crucially the death toll from covid has remained extremely low.

We now have hundreds of thousands of so-called ‘cases’, ‘infections’ and ‘positive tests’ but hardly any sick people. Recall that four fifths (80%) of ‘infections’ are asymptomatic (1) Covid wards have been by and large empty throughout June, July, August and September 2020. Most importantly covid deaths are at an all-time low. It is clear that these ‘cases’ are in fact not ‘cases’ but rather they are normal healthy people.

So-called asymptomatic cases have never in the history of respiratory disease been the driver for spread of infection. Rather it is symptomatic people who spread respiratory infections – not asymptomatic people.(2)

It is also abundantly clear that the ‘pandemic’ is basically over and has been since June 2020. (3)

We have very highly likely reached herd immunity and therefore have no need for a vaccine.

We have safe and very effective treatments and preventative treatments for covid, we therefore call for an immediate end to all lockdown measures, social distancing, mask wearing, testing of healthy individuals, track and trace, immunity passports, the vaccination program and so on.

There has been a catalogue of unscientific, non-sensical policies enacted which infringe our inalienable rights, such as – freedom of movement, freedom of speech and freedom of assembly. These draconian totalitarian measures must never be repeated.

LOCKDOWN

  • Covid has proved less deadly than previous influenza seasons – There were 50,100 flu deaths from December 2017 to March 2018 in England and Wales. There were 80,000 flu deaths in 1969. To date we have circa 42,000 covid related deaths in the UK.
  • We have never locked down society for a respiratory virus before.
  • The basis for lockdown was a mathematical model by Professor Neil Ferguson. His modelling which predicted half a million deaths in the UK has been roundly condemned as being not fit for purpose. His estimated death figures were clearly wrong by a factor of 10 or 12 times. (1)
  • Professor Ferguson’s modelling was not even peer reviewed before being acted upon by several nations. Eminent epidemiologists such as Professor Gupta from Oxford University were ignored, they estimated the death count would be far lower in the UK.
  • Professor Ferguson has a long track record of woeful modelling he was entirely wrong about sars, mers, mad cow’s disease (CJD), and swine flu. Why did the world listen to him again? (2)
  • Countries which did not lock down Sweden, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and Belarus have all done significantly better than us in terms of percentage of population deaths. They also have herd immunity and intact economies.
  • Lockdown did not save lives, and this has been published in the Lancet ‘….in our analysis, full lockdowns and wide-spread COVID-19 testing were not associated with reductions in the number of critical cases or overall mortality.’ (3)
  • The vast majority of deaths occurred in elderly and very elderly people
  • The vast majority of deaths occurred in people with pre-existing serious health issues such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s, diabetes etc
  • Covid poses virtually zero risk to the under 45’s who have more chance of being struck by lightning than dying from covid.
  • Covid poses a very small risk for healthy under 60 year olds who have a greater chance of accidental drowning than dying from covid.
  • The entire nation was essentially placed under house arrest. We have never isolated the healthy before.
  • Isolating the sick and those who are immunocompromised makes sense. Isolating the healthy has hampered the establishment of herd immunity and makes no sense.
  • To put it into perspective we had 115,000 smoking related deaths in the UK in 2015 compared to the 42,000 deaths from covid.
  • We usually have around 600,000 deaths every year in the UK, roughly 1600 deaths per day.

COLLATERAL DAMAGE THE CURE IS WORSE THAN THE VIRUS

  • Placing the public under virtual house arrest has caused untold damage to both physical and mental health.(1)
  • Ventilating patients instead of oxygenating patients proved to be a deadly policy and an unwarranted failure. Ventilation resulted in many unnecessary deaths. (2)
  • Sending infected people from hospitals to care homes placed the elderly and frail under unnecessary risk and resulted in many unnecessary deaths. (3)
  • Blanket Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) orders were imposed on thousands of people without their consent nor the consent of their families – this is both unlawful and immoral and lead to unnecessary deaths in care homes. (4)
  • Hospitals became essentially ‘covid only’ centres vast numbers of patients were wilfully neglected, resulting in many thousands of unnecessary deaths. (5)
  • The government’s own report estimates that some two hundred thousand (200,000) people will die as a direct result of lockdown – not the virus. Hospitals being closed, suicide and poverty will result in more deaths than the virus. (6)
  • The cure is worse than the disease!

DEATH CERTIFICATES (1)

  • The majority of people who died had significant comorbidities, such as Alzheimer’s, cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
  • Counting death certificates with a ‘mention’ of covid as being a death caused by covid is a gross misrepresentation of the facts and has vastly over exaggerated the death toll.
  • The rules for the signing of death certificates have been changed solely for covid by the Coronavirus 2020 Act.
  • Doctors do not even need to have physically seen the patient in order to sign death certificates.
  • The Act has removed the need for a confirmatory medical certificate for cremations.
  • Autopsies have virtually been banned, no doubt leading to misdiagnosis of the true cause of deaths; and also reducing our understanding of the disease itself.
  • Worse still, care home staff who largely have no medical training are able to give a statement as to the cause of death.
  • Covid was put on death certificates merely on the ‘suspicion’ of people having covid. This may well be unlawful, since it is a crime to falsify death certificates.
  • People who die within 28 days of a positive pcr test are deemed to have died from covid, even if they die in a car crash or from a heart attack; clearly over inflating the death toll (2)

ECONOMIC RUIN

  • Reports now estimate that as many as six and a half million (6,500,000) people in the UK will lose their jobs as a result of lockdown. (1)
  • It is well known that poverty directly adversely affects health, we can expect to see many people suffering with poor health and resulting in many premature deaths, as a direct result of lockdown.

CENSORSHIP

  • Government have acted maliciously in censoring doctors, nurses and NHS staff. The people have the perfect right to hear what is going on in hospitals, and the medical profession have a duty to look after the public and to reassure them. (1)
  • The medical profession have not been allowed to let the public know that covid wards have been empty for months, nor that covid deaths have reached an all-time low for months, and this has unnecessarily added to the public’s distress and anxiety.
  • Doctors and scientists with views that differ from the government narrative have had their videos and articles removed from the internet

TESTING – FALSE POSITIVES

  • PCR tests cannot be verified for accuracy as there is no ‘gold standard’ against which to check them. The virus has not been purified. (1)
  • PCR tests cannot detect viral loads and are prone to false positives. (2)
  • A positive PCR test does not mean that an individual is infected nor infective. (3)
  • In fact approximately 90% of the PCR positive ‘cases’ are false positives. We therefore have no second wave and no pandemic. (4 , 5)
  • The government’s report estimates a false positive rate of between 0.8 to 4.0 % using data from other viral infections – not from covid (6)
  • Viral fragments may remain in people’s bodies for several weeks following recovery from infection. (7)
  • The crisis will never end if we are waiting for zero positive tests. Everyone has probably had a cold caused by a coronavirus and will likely have a few viral fragments matching those of the cousin SARS-CoV-2 virus (8)
  • Testing healthy asymptomatic individuals is non-sensical, unscientific and a colossal waste of money. The governments moon shot daily testing program will cost £100 Billion roughly two thirds of the annual NHS budget.
  • Antibody testing is not the gold standard as many people have T-cell immunity, and antibodies may not circulate following recovery from infection.

HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE

  • The controversial drug Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been unfairly smeared, by the WHO, CDC, NIH and the media.
  • However HCQ has very firm support from, amongst others: Professor Harvey Risch epidemiologist from Yale, The American Association of Physicians and Surgeons (AAPS), American Frontline Doctors, the Henry Ford Health System and Professor Didier Raoult microbiologist and infectious disease specialist – to name but a few. (1)
  • The Lancet was even forced to retract a study on HCQ after it was revealed by the Guardian newspaper that they had been completely fabricated and written by a sci-fi writer and a porn star. Even following this astounding revelation HCQ was still banned in most countries. (2)
  • HCQ according to AAPS has a ninety per cent (90%) cure rate when given early and alongside zinc (3)
  • HCQ is safer than many over the counter drugs such as aspirin, Benadryl and Tylenol.
  • The AAPS also point out that there has never been a vaccine as safe as HCQ. (4)
  • HCQ has been licensed for over sixty years and has been safely used by billions of people worldwide. There is a very small risk of arrythmia which is easily monitored.
  • Why was HCQ banned then? Could it be that there are no huge profits to be made from this out-of-patent drug?
  • HCQ was used to great effect in the Sars1 outbreak of 2005 (5)
  • In short had HCQ been available then there would not have been a pandemic !

PREVENTION

  • Preventative measures such as hydroxychloroquine or vitamins D, C and zinc should have been recommended for the public. (1)
  • Early calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) treatment to hospitalized COVID-19 patients significantly reduced intensive care unit admissions (2)
  • Vit D reduces the severity of covid. (2,3)
  • Voluntary isolation of the frail – should they so choose; in combination with preventative measures would have been a far better strategy. The rest of society could and should have continued as normal.

VACCINE

  • A rushed vaccine is clearly not in the public’s best interest
  • Indemnifying vaccine manufacturers against all liability is also clearly not in the public’s best interest

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

  • Chief Scientific Officer Sir Patrick Vallance has £600,000 worth of shares in GSK Glaxo Smith Klein. He has in recent years sold £5 million of shares in GSK which he ‘earned’ whilst chief of GSK (1)
  • Sir Chris Whitty, Chief Medical Officer UK, accepted over £30 million in funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation to study malaria vaccines. (2)
  • It has become clear that members of SAGE, Public Health England (PHE), World Health Organisation (WHO), Centre for Disease Control (CDC), National institute for Health (NIH) etc have many conflicts of interests. They all accept very large ‘donations’ from the pharmaceutical and vaccine industry. These conflicts of interests may well have effectively corrupted their integrity. (3)
  • It is also clear that governments are heavily lobbied by the pharmaceutical industry and the vaccine industry, again this may have compromised their integrity. (4)

CUI BONO? WHO BENEFITS?

  • Vaccine manufacturers will make trillions from this, as will track and trace manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry stand to make trillions from covid testing.
  • Prime minister Boris Johnson announced the new ‘moon shot’ testing will cost £100 Billion, approximately two thirds of the annual NHS budget.
  • Surely these vast sums would be far better spent on treating all of the neglected patients who have been wilfully neglected during lockdown and who now face huge waiting lists.

CONCLUSIONS

We have effective and safe treatments and preventative medications for covid, therefore there is no need for any lockdown restrictions and associated measures. The pandemic is essentially over as can be seen by the consistent low death rate and hospital admissions over the past four months.

We demand the immediate and permanent ceasing of all lockdown measures.

Lockdowns do not save lives, that is why they have never been used before. Civil liberties and fundamental freedoms have been unnecessarily removed from the public and this must never happen again.

Preventative measures such as Hydroxychloroquine, vitamin C, Vitamin D and zinc must be made readily available to the public.

Isolation must be voluntary. People are perfectly capable of making their own assessment of the risks and must be free to go about their lives as they so choose. People must have the right to choose whether to isolate or not.

Likewise, businesses must have the right to remain open if they so choose.

We demand that doctors, nurses, scientists and healthcare professionals must be permitted free speech and never be censored again.

Professor Mark Woolhouse epidemiologist and specialist in infectious diseases, Edinburgh University Member of the Scientific Pandemic Influenza Group on Behaviours, that advises the Government stated that –

Lockdown was a monumental disaster on a global scale. The cure was worse than the disease.

I never want to see national lockdown again. It was always a temporary measure that simply delayed the stage of the epidemic we see now. It was never going to change anything fundamentally, however low we drove down the number of cases,

We absolutely should never return to a position where children cannot play or go to school.

I believe the harm lockdown is doing to our education, health care access, and broader aspects of our economy and society will turn out to be at least as great as the harm done by Covid-19.’(1)

The World Doctors Alliance agree fully with Prof Woolhouse’s assertions, he is right! We must never lockdown again!

NB the term ‘covid’ has been used to represent Sars-CoV-2 and Covid-19

Visit the website! Learn more and get the latest…

REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION

  1. BMJ
  2. CNN and WBUR
  3. NHS

LOCKDOWN

  1. Telegraph
  2. Times
  3. The Lancet

COLLATERAL DAMAGE

  1. BMJ
  2. Time
  3. Dr Malcolm Kendrick
  4. QNI
  5. BBC
  6. BBC

DEATH CERTIFICATES

  1. Spectator
  2. Telegraph

ECONOMIC RUIN

  1. Independent

CENSORSHIP

  1. Guardian

TESTS

  1. BMJ
  2. Spectator
  3. CEBM
  4. Lockdown Sceptics and DOI
  5. ANH International
  6. Gov.UK
  7. Lancet
  8. Apps Online

HCQ

  1. Newsweek
  2. Guardian
  3. Lancet
  4. Apps Online
  5. Apps Online
  6. NIH.GOV
  7. NIH.GOV

PREVENTION

  1. BMJ
  2. DOI.ORG
  3. DOI.ORG

CONFLICTS OF INTERESTS

  1. Telegraph
  2. Telegraph
  3. Apps Online
  4. Statnews

CONCLUSION

  1. Express

SIGNED BY:

  1. DR MOHAMMAD ADIL
  2. PROFESSOR DOLORES CAHILL
  3. DR. R. ZAC COX, BDS
  4. DR. HEIKO SCHÖNING
  5. DR. ANDREW KAUFMAN, M.D
  6. DR. SCOTT JENSEN, M.D

Updated daily.
Last update 21.10.2020

TOTAL SIGNATURES SO FAR: 18736

Website data since launch:
Total pageviews: 317,609
Total unique visitors: 159,023

Scientific Study: 5G Technology and Induction of Coronavirus in Skin Cells

M FioranelliA Sepehri, T. Lotti, and M.G. Roccia of the Department of Nuclear, Sub-nuclear and Radiation Physics, G. Marconi University in Rome, Italy; M. Jafferany of Central Michigan University in the U.S.; and O.Y. Olisova and K.M. Lomonosov of the Department of Dermatology and Venereology, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia conducted the study.

Abstract

In this research, we show that 5G millimeter waves could be absorbed by dermatologic cells acting like antennas, transferred to other cells and play the main role in producing Coronaviruses in biological cells. DNA is built from charged electrons and atoms and has an inductor-like structure. This structure could be divided into linear, toroid and round inductors. Inductors interact with external electromagnetic waves, move and produce some extra waves within the cells. The shapes of these waves are similar to shapes of hexagonal and pentagonal bases of their DNA source. These waves produce some holes in liquids within the nucleus. To fill these holes, some extra hexagonal and pentagonal bases are produced. These bases could join to each other and form virus-like structures such as Coronavirus. To produce these viruses within a cell, it is necessary that the wavelength of external waves be shorter than the size of the cell. Thus 5G millimeter waves could be good candidates for applying in constructing virus-like structures such as Coronaviruses (COVID-19) within cells.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32668870/

Stanford Scientists Take Next Step in Brain-Machine Interface Research

In 2005, scientist and futurist Ray Kurweil raised eyebrows with his explosive book The Singularity is Near. Concerning the possibility that humans will “transcend biology,” Kurzweil noted: “The singularity will be a merger of our bodies + minds with our technology. The world will still be human, but transcend our biology’s roots. There will be no distinction between human and machine — nor between physical and virtual reality. If you wonder what will remain unequivocally human, it’s this quality — our species inherently seeks to extend its physical and mental reach beyond current limitations.”

Such claims had been made before, but Kurzweil foresaw it coming not in some distant future, but in the relative near term. Since publication of the book, artificial intelligence and several related technologies have made dramatic and sometimes troubling advances, and Kurzweil himself is now working on a follow-up book titled The Singularity is Nearer, set to debut in 2021.

It is debatable if Kurzweil’s singularity is achievable within the next few decades, but scientists are, in fact, making discoveries that seem to augur for the eventual merger of human biology with machines. An example is recent work carried out by researchers at Stanford University and described in a paper published in the journal Nature Materials. The paper describes the creation and testing of technology for artificial neural networks (ANNs) aimed for use in brain-machine interfaces, specifically the creation of “hardware ANNs that can both directly interface with living tissue and adapt based on biofeedback.”

Describing the research, Stanford News Service said the research was focused on testing a “biohybrid version” of an artificial synapse to demonstrate that it can communicate with living cells.

“This paper really demonstrates the unique strength of the materials that we use in being able to interact with living matter,” Alberto Salleo, a professor of materials science and engineering at Stanford and co-author of the paper, told Stanford News Service. “The cells are happy sitting on the soft polymer. But the compatibility goes deeper: These materials work with the same molecules neurons use naturally.”

In biological systems, neurons communicate across synapses using chemical signaling that triggers and modifies electrochemical activity in neurons. The “biohybrid” developed by the researchers integrates with this biological system.

“In a biological synapse, essentially everything is controlled by chemical interactions at the synaptic junction. Whenever the cells communicate with one another, they’re using chemistry,” Scott Keene, a graduate student at Stanford and co-lead author of the paper, said, according to Stanford News Service. “Being able to interact with the brain’s natural chemistry gives the device added utility.”

The researchers tested their approach using rat neuroendocrine cells that release dopamine, a neurotransmitter. They also stressed that their research remains at a very early stage.

“It’s a demonstration that this communication melding chemistry and electricity is possible,” Salleo admitted. “You could say it’s a first step toward a brain-machine interface, but it’s a tiny, tiny very first step.”

Still, in their paper, the researchers emphasized the future impact of their discovery.

“By mimicking the dopamine recycling machinery of the synaptic cleft,” they wrote, “we demonstrate both long-term conditioning and recovery of the synaptic weight, paving the way towards combining artificial neuromorphic systems with biological neural networks.”

There are many, many steps to go before Kurzweil’s predicted “singularity.” This, however, appears to be one such step.

Dennis Behreandt is a research professional and writer, frequently covering subjects in history, theology, and science and technology. He has worked as an editor and publisher and is a former managing editor of The New American.

Source: The New American (Donate)

Study: Enjoyment of Pop Music Classics linked to Combination of Uncertainty and Surprise

Plants can help spruce up a home or office space, but claims about their ability to improve the air quality are vastly overstated, according to research out of Drexel University. A closer look at decades of research suggesting that potted plants can improve the air in homes and offices reveals that natural ventilation far outpaces plants when it comes to cleaning the air.

“This has been a common misconception for some time. Plants are great, but they don’t actually clean indoor air quickly enough to have an effect on the air quality of your home or office environment,” said Michael Waring, PhD, an associate professor of architectural and environmental engineering in Drexel’s College of Engineering.

Waring and one of his doctoral students, Bryan Cummings, reviewed a dozen studies, spanning 30 years of research, to draw their conclusions and recently published findings in the Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology . The central finding is that the natural or ventilation air exchange rates in indoor environments, like homes and offices, dilutes concentrations of volatile organic compounds — the air pollution that plants are allegedly cleaning — much faster than plants can extract them from the air.

The high-profile experiment that seemed to create the myth of houseplants as air purifiers happened in 1989 when NASA, in search of ways to clean the air on space stations, declared that plants could be used to remove cancer-causing chemicals from the air.

But the problem with this experiment, and others like it, is that they were conducted in a sealed chamber in a lab — a contained environment that has little in common with a house or office — and the data from these studies was not interpreted further to reflect what the findings would be if the plant were in a real indoor environment with natural or ventilation air exchange.

“Typical for these studies,” the researchers write, “a potted plant was placed in a sealed chamber (often with a volume of a cubic meter or smaller), into which a single VOC was injected, and its decay was tracked over the course of many hours or days.”

Waring and Cummings’s review takes the data from volumes of potted plant research one step farther, by using it to calculate a measure called the “clean air delivery rate,” or “CADR.” They were able to make this calculation for nearly all of the studies and what they found in every case was that the rate at which plants dissipated VOCs in a chamber was orders of magnitude slower than the standard rate of air exchange in a building — thus proving the plants’ overall effect on indoor air quality to be irrelevant.

“The CADR is the standard metric used for scientific study of the impacts of air purifiers on indoor environments, but many of the researchers conducting these studies were not looking at them from an environmental engineering perspective and did not understand how building air exchange rates interplay with the plants to affect indoor air quality,” Waring said.

Many of these studies did show a reduction in the concentration of volatile organic compounds over time, which is likely why people have seized on them to extol the air purifying virtues of plants. But according to Waring and Cummings’s calculations, it would take between 10 and 1,000 plants per square meter of floor space to compete with the air cleaning capacity of a building’s air handling system or even just a couple open windows in a house.

“This is certainly an example of how scientific findings can be misleading or misinterpreted over time,” Waring said. “But it’s also a great example of how scientific research should continually reexamine and question findings to get closer to the ground truth of understanding what’s actually happening around us.”

Source: ScienceDaily

Researchers discover how cells know their future and forget their past

(Science Daily) Stem cells all share the potential of developing into any specific cell in the body. Many researchers are therefore trying to answer the fundamental questions of what determines the cells’ developmental fate as well as when and why the cells lose the potential of developing into any cell.

Now, researchers from the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Stem Cell Biology (DanStem) at University of Copenhagen have discovered how stem cells can lose this potential and thus can be said to “forget their past.” It turns out that the proteins called transcription factors play another role than the scientists thought. For 30 years, the dogma has been that transcription factors are the engines of gene expression, triggering these changes by switching the genes on and off. However, new research results published in Nature reveal something quite different.

“We previously thought that transcription factors drive the process that determines whether a gene is expressed and subsequently translated into the corresponding protein. Our new results show that transcription factors may be more analogous to being the memory of the cell. As long as the transcription factors are connected to a gene, the gene can be read (turned on), but the external signals received by the cells seem to determine whether the gene is turned on or off. As soon as the transcription factors are gone, the cells can no longer return to their point of origin,” explains Josh Brickman, Professor and Group Leader, DanStem, University of Copenhagen.

The question of how a cell slowly develops from one state to another is key to understanding cell behavior in multicellular organisms. Stem cell researchers consider this vital, which is why they are constantly trying to refine techniques to develop the human body’s most basic cells into various specific types of cells that can be used, for example, to regenerate damaged tissue. So far, however, investigating the signals required to make cells switch identity has been extremely difficult, since making all the cells in a dish do the same thing at the same time is very difficult.

A protein centered viewpoint

The researchers developed a stem cell model to mimic a cell’s response to signaling and used it to, for first time, precisely determine the sequence of the events involved in a gene being turned on and off in response to a signal in stem cells. The researchers were able to describe how genes are turned on and off and under what circumstances a cell can develop in a certain direction but then elect to return to the starting-point.

Part of this work involved measuring how proteins in a cell are modified by phosphorylation using advanced mass spectrometry available through an important collaboration with Jesper Olsen’s Group at the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research.

“Combining forces with the Olsen group in the CPR enabled us to provide a unique deep description of how individual proteins in a cell react to signals from the outside,” continues Josh Brickman.

New answers to old scientific questions

These results are surprising. Although the sequence of cell transcription processes could not previously be measured as accurately as in this study, the dogma was that transcription factors comprise the on-off switch that is essential to initiate transcription of the individual gene. This is not so for embryonic stem cells and potentially for other cell types.

“Transcription factors are still a key signal, but they do not drive the process, as previously thought. Once they are there, the gene can be read, and they remain in place for a while after the gene is read. And when they are gone, the window in which the gene can be read can be closed again. You can compare it with the vapour trails you see in the sky when an airplane has passed. They linger for a while but slowly dissipate again,” explains first author, William Hamilton, Assistant Professor at DanStem.

This discovery is first and foremost basic knowledge, which changes fundamental assumptions in molecular biology. The new results are especially important for researchers working on stem cells and cancer biology. They provide new insight into how cells develop, how pathways involved in development determine when cells change, and when the point of no return is reached. These pathways are also found frequently mutated in cancer and the findings in this study will be valuable to the study of malignant development.

“In the project, we focused on the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway, which is a signalling pathway from a receptor on the surface of a cell to DNA inside the cell nucleus. This pathway is dysregulated in many types of cancer, and we therefore hope that many of the data in this study will help to inform aspects of cancer biology by indicating new ways to specifically target this signalling pathway in cancer cells,” concludes Josh Brickman.

Story Source: